The Original Bull Terrier, "officially" known as the English Bull Terrier or amongst the in-crowd as the Hink's Bull Terrier ((close to) extint and replaced with show variants; new life has been injected by recreations), is a medium sized, short-haired, muscular breed developed in England. Visually the Hink's Bull Terrier resembles a cross-breeding of on one side the show English Bull Terrier and on the other side the orginal Bull & Terrier, American Pitbull Terrier, original Staffordshire Bull Terrier or a Irish Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
Of recent years the Original Bull Terrier has not been a great favourite, and it has sadly deteriorated in type; but there are hopes and small signs that the variety is again coming into repute, and within the past years some admirable specimens have been brought into prominence again.
The Hinks Bull Terrier History
In writing about the history of the Bull Terrier, one must mention the early history of Bulldogs and Terriers. From the 13th century, dogs had been used for bull-baiting, a kind of public entertainment. Dogs of a Bulldog type were fighting with a bull in a ring or a pit. It was an amusement and a spectacle appreciated and enjoyed even in the highest circles. To make the show more interesting, breeders began crossing Bulldogs for strength and Terriers for their speed, fierceness and versatility. Those Terriers were working Terriers, in a range of types, sizes and coat colours.
Bull-, bear- and badger-baiting was banned in Britain in 1835, but many illegal fights continued to be organized in pubs or secret pits. By the 1860s, vigilant police forces had eliminated the pits from the cities and the fights moved to remote areas.
See also the history of the (English) Bull Terrier.
At the first dog show, that was held in Newcastle-on-tyne in 1859 no bull terriers were entered. In 1861 at a show in Leeds there was the first class for bull terriers, at which two dogs were shown. Then in 1863 the first London show that had a class for bull terriers was held at Ashburton Hall. There was several dogs shown there that day and the Hinks name appeared for the first time. Hinks' Puss came first that show. James Hinks was a dog and animal dealer and supplier of fur and feathers. Some one trying to work his way up, originating from the city of Mulling in Ireland his family came to live in the back streets (close to the slums) of 19th century Birmingham. James Hinks of Birmingham addressed himself to the task of developing a strain of white bull terriers with longer heads and more shapely bodies.
James Hinks was certainly not the first to cross Bulldogs and Terriers. When he began buying, breeding and selling dogs, a lot of Bulldogs already possessed quite a lot of Terrier blood, thanks to earlier crossings. It is possible that in the beginning there was very little difference between Hinks' dogs and other Bulldogs or Bull-and-Terriers in the show ring.
As a dog dealer, Hinks sold many breeds: Mastiffs, Pointers, Blood-hounds, King Charles Spaniels, Pugs, Black and Tan Terriers, Dalmatians and Italian Greyhounds - but Bulldogs and Terriers were his favorites. Don't be fooled by the romantic picture adepts of the breed draw: James was also a puppy peddler breeding the breeds that were popular in that day and age. James and his sons were exhibitors of the first class. Hinks was not so gentlemanly himself, he made contact (including punching an officer in the face) with the police and had some convictions and jail time.
Competing in around 100 shows in ten years with there lines of White Bull Terriers. And the more people saw Hink's White Bull Terriers, the more they wanted them. The name Hinks got intertwined with the original show bull terrier breed of that day and age.
With Hinks, Hinks' sons (James the Second and Fred) and breeders like them the new modern show bull terrier was being civilized, moulded for a gentlemanly character and they refined him for beauty. In 1877, James Hinks contracted tuberculosis and he died in May 1878, at 49 years old, leaving a widow and 8 children aged 13 to 26. He died at Belgrave Road, an area for middle class residents. Born in one of the poorest places in Ireland, he had lifted his family from the slums and accumulated an estate worth £450. According to his will, the house was inherited by his wife, Elizabeth. There was very little attention for his death: only one line in the 'Birmingham Daily Post'. His sons, James the Second and Fred Hinks carried on there father's work long after his death by continuing breeding these kind of dogs. Carleton Hinks the Son of James the Second Hinks adopted the affix "of Brum" under which he made many Show Champions in the next 30 years, before he died in 1977.
The goal was to create the true gentlemans companion: a status symbol for a sporting gentleman, a watchful guardian to his family, the children's most stable and trusted friend and at the same time a dog with athletic capacity and a courageous and willing heart.
For this purpose Hink's continued doing the following: Hinks bred for looks, status symbol and the gentleman's companion. He however used if possible game stock. From the gamest of his White English Terriers to the most determined Bull Dogs he thought he could find and then later on adding a dash of Dalmatian and continued dipping back to the Bull & Terrier/ original staffordshire bull terrier/ original pit bulls when he felt he needed to.
We of By Spartan Law think that infusing the Dalmatian blood was a not so clever idea. The Dalmatian introduced the deafness problems. The benefits for Hinks was that he already possessed Dalmatians and that they were a popular dogs and had protective instincts against foul people among his target crowd: gentlemans that could pay the dear sum for his dogs. In his eyes the old fighting dogs were at last being civilized: longer necks and free from the lippieness and the throatiness of the bull dogs and the more refined than the pure performance based original pit bulls and terriers crosses.
Hinks cleverly rumoured of his dogs gameness in pit fights against the old type of Bull and Terriers combined with the glamorous looks this new breed was taking off for James Hinks and he was commanding a high price for his sporting gentleman's dog. It should be noted that one could easily put his claim that he indeed matched his show winning dog Hink's Puss uphill 20 pounds against one of the old type of pit bulls for half an hour and not to be marked by his canine gladiator opponent and then go on to win in a beauty show the same day to the Fairy Tales. At best he allowed Hinks' Puss a small roll against a sub par Bull & Terrier for a trendy but naive London crowd. In his modern form the Hink's Bull Terrier was a model of a true sporting gentleman's dog showing maximum power and activity for his size, with no exaggerated lines or excessive weight to lug around.
Hinks Bull Terrier Appearance
Body: The general appearance of the Hinks' Bull terrier is that of a symmetrical animal, the embodiment of agility, grace, elegance, and determination.
The shoulders should be strong, muscular, and slanting; the chest wide and deep, with ribs well rounded. The back short and muscular, but not out of proportion to the general contour of the animal. The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, with well-developed muscles; not out at shoulder, but set on the racing lines, and very strong at the pastern joints. The hind-legs are long and, in proportion to the fore-legs, muscular, with good strong, straight hocks, well let down near the ground. The feet more resemble those of a cat than a hare. The tail should be short in proportion to the size of the dog, set on very low down, thick where it joins the body, and tapering to a fine point. It should be carried at an angle of about 45 degrees, without curl, and never over the back.
Head: the head should be long, flat, and wide between the ears, tapering to the nose, without cheek muscles. There should be a slight indentation down the face, without a stop between the eyes. The jaws should be long and very powerful, with a large black nose and open nostrils. Eyes small and very black, almond shape preferred. The lips should meet as tightly as possible, without a fold. The teeth should be regular in shape, and should meet exactly; any deviation, such as pigjaw, or being underhung, is a great fault. The ears, when cropped, should be done scientifically and according to fashion. Cropped dogs cannot win a prize at shows held under Kennel Club rules, if born after March 31st, 1895. When not cropped, it should be a semi-erect ear, but others do not disqualify. NECK--The neck should be long and slightly arched, nicely set into the shoulders tapering to the head without any loose skin, as found in the Bulldog.
Height at Withers: from 30.5 cm to 45.7 cm (12-18 inches).
Weight: from 6.8 kg to 22.7kg (15 lb. to 50 lb).
Coat: short, close, and stiff to the touch, with a fine gloss.
Colors: should be white.
Hinks Bull Terrier Temperament
Character: brave, stubborn, clownesque and social creatures with a high drive.
Social Build: Hinks Bull Terrier socially is a dog that is dog aggressive particular to same sex dogs. Especially the male Hinks Bull Terriers have a confronting and dog-aggressive reputation. Usually good with people and kids. Often Hinks Bull Terriers have limited watchdog potential, but will protect the owners if needed.
Hinks Bull Terrier Socially
Care: very easy to groom, rich single coat.
Education: begin socialization early. Hinks Bull Terriers are stubborn and clownesque by nature. Be consequent and firm with your voice if necessary without using physical violance.
Activity: a lot more energy and drive then the show English Bull Terrier, Hinks Bull Terriers have a need to be able to work out their athletic composition and high energy levels.
Usability: Being advertised and sent all over the British Empire and beyond as a sporting dog and a show dog. Being used as a catch dog and a big game hunter. Being involved in hog-baiting; bear-baiting and dog-baiting/dog-fighting. Being bred back regularly to the old staffordshire bull terrier or the american derivative the pit bull terrier to keep his spirit and grit alive for his work and the Hink's Bull Terrier at that time has been used extensively in scientific breeding programs and (re)creation of new performance breeds: amongst other's the hog-hunting breeds: the Argentine Dogo or the Austrailian Bull Arab, as well as the German Titan Terrier (which could be seen as a non-white Hinks' Bull Terrier reconstruction in it's own: using Bull Terrier, Patterdale Terrrier and American Pitbull Terrier blood). In both Germany and Austria the English working type Bull Terrier was being extensively used as a police dog.
A special mention is reserved for the Hink's Bull Terrier in Ireland, India and Pakistan. In at the time British India it was bred to the local Indian mastiffs and the original Bully Kuttas and in Pakistan were there is still a type of Hinks Bull Terrier alive today in the from of the Gull Terr. In Pakistan the Gull Terr is still pitted against each other and other dog breeds and for bear baiting at the big fairs with hundreds off spectators just like the old bear and bull baiting fairs of England.
In Ireland the new generation of working type Bull and Terrier's (including some Bull Terriers of the Hink's type) were being pitted against each other and breed with the old type of Irish Bull And Terriers and there gameness also being tested on Badgers. The latter test against the badger was also referred to as Teastas Mor (certificate of gameness). Teastas Mor was a certificate of gameness issued to a dog by the Irish Kennel Club and governed under strict Irish Kennel Club rules. The Teastas Mor was considered to ensure that the contests between dog and badger were fair. In the past, to become an Irish Kennel Club terrier champion, it was necessary for a terrier to be in possession of a Teastas Mor Certificate. These Teastas Mor tests continued until the kennel ceased to license trials in 1968. In Ireland especially in the 1960s, 70s and 80s continuing to the breeding program of Philip Craven-Lancaster in the 1980s and 90s up to the new wave of sporting bull terrier's that are coming out today.
Hinks Bull Terrier Quotes / Trivia
The Afrikaans (African language) name for Bull Terrier is Varkhond (meaning Pig Dog). Most dog breeds were developed after hundreds of years of evolution and lengthy selection by breeders. However, some breeds owe their existence to just one person. The Hinks' Bull Terrier is such a breed.